Construction drawings may assist guarantee that all of the numerous professionals working on a building site understand what they are working on and what the ultimate product should be. Construction drawings provide a visual framework that helps all parties involved to obtain a better understanding of how their different responsibilities will come together to make a final project. This article will go through 12 various kinds of building designs and their applications.
What is construction drawings?
Construction drawings are hand-drawn or digitally created visual designs that depict a structure to be constructed for residential, public, or commercial constructions. Construction drawings help guide the construction process by illustrating the size, installation materials, and other features of a structure, as well as ensuring that local officials issue the project any necessary permissions.
Architects are often responsible for creating all construction drawings for a project. In certain circumstances, other professionals may contribute one or more construction drawings. Engineers may submit their own plumbing, ventilation, or fire safety designs for larger commercial projects, for example.
What do construction drawings all have?
Architectural symbols or standardised markers for various components of the construction project can be seen on most construction drawings. Lighting and electrical buildings are examples of common architectural symbols. The use of these standardised symbols makes it easier for construction teams and permit authorities to read an architect’s drawings.
Professionals also make virtually all construction drawings to scale, which means that they reduce the true size of the future project by comparable proportions in the drawings. A 1-inch drawn line represents 4 feet on a construction design created at a quarter-inch per foot scale, for example.
12 types of construction drawings
Here are 12 different types of construction drawings that may be required for a building project:
1. Site plan
A site plan is a map of the building site. Site plans provide information about existing structures such as roadways and other buildings on or near the construction site. Natural characteristics such as vegetation and variations in land elevation are represented as topographical components. Site plans can incorporate anticipated post-construction enhancements to the area, such as drainage systems or topography changes.
For example, if an apartment building’s construction site was near other apartment buildings, your site plan would include them. If you were building around an existing row of trees, you would include them into your plan.
2. Plot plans
Plot plans and site plans are similar in that both depict the complete project site. Both often use an aerial, or above-ground, viewpoint. Plot plans, on the other hand, provide additional information about the location of the structure, such as land survey markers. Plot plans are typically used to outline the boundaries of a construction as well as the total land area acquired. A plot plan, for example, may show that the planned building design allows for grass on two sides of the site.
3. Excavation plans
The dimensions of the planned excavation on the project site are depicted in excavation plan drawings. The designs may specify the method of excavation, such as trenching or tunnelling. The depth, width, and length of excavation are determined by the project and site. A home with a basement, for example, will almost certainly necessitate a deeper excavation operation than one without.
4. Floor plan
Floor plans depict how the building project may appear from above without a roof. Structures with many floors often have a different floor layout on each level. Floor layouts provide information such as:
- Dimensions of interior and exterior walls
- The type of each room
- Material specifications
- Stairs and their direction
An architect, for example, would most likely prepare a floor plan for each level of a two-story house. The first level floor plan may include information on the kitchen, while the second level may provide specifics for each bedroom.
5. Elevation drawings
Elevation plan drawings show the structures vertically, as if you were gazing at them straight on. Architects create elevation designs in two dimensions, therefore they do not reflect the depth of a project.
Elevation construction drawings depict the outer plan and façade of a structure. The elevation drawings would reveal whether you wanted your building to have a certain siding or roofing material. Elevation plans often contain measures for exterior fixtures, such as the distance between each window.
6. Section drawings
Both section plan drawings and elevation plans represent the project from a vertical perspective. Section plans, on the other hand, reveal the hidden structures underlying the building’s facade, whilst elevation drawings illustrate what a building should look like once completed from the exterior. Section plans could show:
- The insides of walls or floors
- The foundation of the building
- Lintels, or support structures above doors and windows
If you intended to build a structure using stone columns, you would put that information in the section plans.
7. Detail drawings
Detail drawings are larger-scale renditions of elements shown in prior construction drawings. Detail drawings show the positioning and connections of different pieces in more detail. An architect might generate detail drawings for:
- Door frames
- Material connections, such as where a column meets the foundation
- Cornices, or decorative features near the top of a wall
- Window frames
If you wanted cornices in your new house, the detail drawings would very certainly include neighboring roof rafters and wall studs.
8. Mechanical and electrical drawings
Mechanical and electrical drawings represent the design and location of the future building’s power infrastructure. Mechanical and electrical drawings may contain the following:
- Thermostat placements
- Air delivery rates
- Ductwork structures
- Load calculations
- Switch locations
- Wiring paths
Depending on the size, kind, and complexity of the structure, the expert may combine or divide these designs. Because hospitals often need complex ventilation systems, hospital design plans may incorporate distinct mechanical and electrical schematics. Separate mechanical and electrical drawings may not be required for a small residential property.
9. Plumbing and drainage
Drawings of plumbing and drainage depict how water enters and leaves the facility. Ensuring proper drainage on your building project helps to keep future users healthy. These designs provide the exact locations and dimensions of fittings such as:
- Water tanks
10. Finishing drawings
Finishing drawings, like detail drawings, depict the building project’s smallest characteristics. The contrast is that, whilst detail drawings are concerned with structural issues such as door and window frames, a finishing drawing is concerned with design elements such as:
- Floor patterns
- Plaster texture
- Wall paint colours
For example, if you knew you wanted a floor pattern that matched the wall colour, you would include it on the finishing plans.
11. Finishing drawings
A mirrored ceiling sketch shows how the ceiling should seem from the floor. Components of reflected ceiling designs may include:
- The light fixtures attached to ceilings
- The aesthetic features of a cornice
- The design of a visible column
Some ceiling designs may be more challenging to implement than others. A building with elaborate inside cornices, for example, is likely to have a more intricately designed reflected ceiling.
12. Perspective drawings
Perspective drawings represent a three-dimensional planned building. Perspective drawings help to provide a more thorough understanding of how the building project will seem once done. A perspective sketch may help construction workers picture how porches linked to the outsides of apartment units will appear after they are finished.